class pylops.Kronecker(Op1, Op2, dtype='float64')[source]

Kronecker operator.

Perform Krocker product of two operators. Note that the combined operator is never created explicitely, rather the product of this operator with the model vector is performed in forward mode, or the product of the adjoint of this operator and the data vector in adjoint mode.

Op1 : pylops.LinearOperator

First operator

Op2 : pylops.LinearOperator

Second operator

dtype : str, optional

Type of elements in input array.


The Kronecker product denoted with :math`otimes` is an operation on two operators \(\mathbf{Op_1}\) and \(\mathbf{Op_2}\) of sizes \(\lbrack n_1 \times m_1 \rbrack\) and \(\lbrack n_2 \times m_2 \rbrack\) respectively, resulting in a block matrix of size \(\lbrack n_1 n_2 \times m_1 m_2 \rbrack\).

\[\begin{split}\mathbf{Op_1} \otimes \mathbf{Op_2} = \begin{bmatrix} Op_1^{1,1} \mathbf{Op_2} & ... & Op_1^{1,m_1} \mathbf{Op_2} \\ ... & ... & ... \\ Op_1^{n_1,1} \mathbf{Op_2} & ... & Op_1^{n_1,m_1} \mathbf{Op_2} \end{bmatrix}\end{split}\]

The application of the resulting matrix to a vector \(\mathbf{x}\) of size \(\lbrack m_1 m_2 \times 1 \rbrack\) is equivalent to the application of the second operator \(\mathbf{Op_2}\) to the columns of a matrix of size \(\lbrack m_2 \times m_1 \rbrack\) obtained by reshaping the input vector \(\mathbf{x}\), followed by the application of the first operator to the transposed matrix produced by the first operator. Similarly, in adjoint mode the two operators are applied in reversed order to a reshaped matrix of size \(\lbrack n_1 \times n_2 \rbrack\).

shape : tuple

Operator shape

explicit : bool

Operator contains a matrix that can be solved explicitly (True) or not (False)


__init__(self, Op1, Op2[, dtype]) Initialize this LinearOperator.
adjoint(self) Hermitian adjoint.
cond(self, \*\*kwargs_eig) Condition number of linear operator.
conj(self) Complex conjugate operator
div(self, y[, niter]) Solve the linear problem \(\mathbf{y}=\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x}\).
dot(self, x) Matrix-matrix or matrix-vector multiplication.
eigs(self[, neigs, symmetric, niter]) Most significant eigenvalues of linear operator.
matmat(self, X) Matrix-matrix multiplication.
matvec(self, x) Matrix-vector multiplication.
rmatvec(self, x) Adjoint matrix-vector multiplication.
transpose(self) Transpose this linear operator.

Examples using pylops.Kronecker